Brian Kofke's Second Cardiovascular Post / Wild Card

20 Interesting Cardiovascular Statistics

1. Your heart beats 100,000 times per day, pumping from 2,500 to 5,000 gallons of blood.

2. By age 80 your heart will have lost almost half of its pumping power.

3. About half of all heart attack deaths are women

4. Over 27% of people who die from coronary heart disease are under the age of 65.

5. 47% of sudden cardiac deaths occur outside the hospital.

6. The most common heart disease risk factor is inactivity (39.5%)

7. Only one in four Americans are able to name all the major symptoms of a heart attack.

8. Four out of every ten Americans have 2 or more heart attack risk factors (inactivity, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, high blood pressure, cigarette smoking).

9. According to the Center for Disease Control, across the United States, fewer people will die from a heart attack in the state of Minnesota than anywhere else.

10. Smokers are up to 4 times more likely to develop coronary heart disease than non smokers.

11. If you smoke, suffer from high blood pressure, and have a cholesterol reading above 200 milligrams for each deciliter of blood, your risk of a heart attack increases by 720%.

12. If your cholesterol reading is over 200 milligrams for each deciliter of blood and you smoke your risk of heart attack is increased by 350%.

13. 75% of people with diabetes will die of some form of heart or blood vessel disease.

14. The average age for a first heart attack is 66.

15. While the number of heart attacks has been declining in recent years one still occurs every 35 seconds in the United States.

16. A recent study linked the very popular cholesterol reduction and heart disease prevention prescription medication category of statins to an increased risk of diabetes.

17. Heart disease has dropped to second just behind cancer as the leading cause of death worldwide. While the numbers are declining in the United States they are on the rise in Asia.

18. A ratio of greater than 2.5 to 1 between bad cholesterol (LDL) and good cholesterol (HDL) has been linked to an increased risk of heart attack or stroke.

19. The American Heart Association recommends daily doctor monitored exercise lasting for at least 30 minutes as a preventative tool against heart attack and high cholesterol.

20. Currently over half of all Americans are using a natural cholesterol reduction supplement or natural supplementation such as omega 3 fish oil to prevent heart and artery disease.

Hawkins, R.D. (n.d.). 20 Interesting Cardiovascular Statistics. Retrieved February 13, 2001 from,

Photo: Inside the heart
Photo: Inside the heart

An incredible picture of the inside heart. L. Tompkins Wiki#2

I thought this might be interesting for everyone and give our brains a break from the overload! Enjoy!
By the way I hope all of my stuff goes to together and doesn't erase anyone's stuff still not figuring it all out!!

  1. ^

    L.Tompkins Presents:
    Fetal Cardiac Surgery;photovideo
    McNamara, M. (2007, February 28). Heart Defects Fixed In Utero Give Hope. Retrieved February 02, 2011, from http://

    "Black Urine Disease" a rare genetic disorder called Alkaptonuria. A person with alkaptonuria is unable to process the amino acids, phenylalanine and tyrosine. As a result, a toxic tyrosine byproduct called homogentisic acid or alkapton accumulates in the blood and is excreted in urine in large amounts. As large quantities are deposited in the connective tissues in the body they turn black. The patient in this case study needed to have heart surgery and a hip replacement, due to the nature of this rare cardiac disorder there were some concerns. Because of his rare disease the blood vessels turned black on exposure to light in the operating theatre making it difficult to tell the difference between a blocked artery and a healthy one. To find out more go to;
    rare cardiac diseases - Bing Images. (n.d.). Bing. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from

    external image Pic_1%28325%29.JPG
    Jodie Spradlin 2nd post

    Thromboangiitis Obliterans (TAO) or Buerger's Disease (posting 1) Audria

    Is a non-atherosclerosing inflammatory disease of the blood vessels and it is a result of heavy cigarette smoking. It typically affects upper and lower extremities and can lead to gangrene of the digits of hands and feet and ultimately lead to amputation of the affected parts. The prevalence is estimated to occur in 12.6-20/100,000 people. People tend to develop painful ulcers in the extremities and have a cooling and edematous feel to the extremities and hands may be a pale, reddish or bluish color. It can be diagnosed with either a Doppler or through angiography. There is no currently known cure for TAO, one can only manage the symptoms. Cessation of smoking is strongly advised, avoiding cold temperatures and applying warmth and exercise may help. There may also be a link between TAO and Reynaud’s disease. Both websites that I used for this information are listed below and I would consider them to be trusted sources, one is a government website regarding public health and the other is the Merck Manual online.


    Health, N. I. (2010, November 5). Thromboangiitis Obliterans. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from Medicine Plus:

    The Merck Manuals. (January). Retrieved February 4, 2011, from Merck:[[media type= width="480" height="385"]]
    (posting 2) Audria

    Histopathology blood vessels-Buerger's disease. (2007, May 23). Retrieved February 4, 2011, from Youtube:

    Pericarditis by Josie Dean - First Cardiovascular Post
    February 3, 2011
    My family has not been feeling well lately. We have been experiencing flu-like symptoms including sore throats, a little coughing and loose-poops. But yesterday on our break from simulation due to crazy cold temperatures, I experienced something a little concerning. I found that when I was lying in a supine position, my chest was really tight. It was a dull-ache rating a 2 on a scale of 1-10. And occasionally, I would have a sharp, burning pain which rated about a 7. It was a little scary. So I decided to check out what the world-wide-web had to say about the aforementioned symptoms. It appears that I may have a touch of viral pericarditis. See the following link for symptoms:"PubMed Health - Pericarditis - bacterial." National Center for Biotechnology Information. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2011.

    The hearts sits in the center of the chest and is surrounded by a sac called the pericardium (see picture below). This sac has two layers, one that fits tightly onto the heart muscle and another looser layer surrounding the inner layer. Inflammation of these tissue layers surrounding the heart is referred to as pericarditis.
    Picture of the Heart in the Pericardial Sac
    Picture of the Heart in the Pericardial Sac

    James Earley
    This is an internet article by the International Heart Lung and Blood institute that describes central lines. Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat certain heart conditions. It helped me understanding heart catheterizations as well as benefits and reasoning for them in more detail.


    Cardiac catheterization to diagnose heart conditions. (n.d.). National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Retrieved February 5, 2011, from





    Cardiology. (n.d.). Upload & Share PowerPoint presentations and documents. Retrieved February 5, 2011, from

    [[media type= width="480" height="390"]]

    This video is a beating heart side to side IMA to LAD. I found this video interesting and amazing how far our medical technology has advanced. ~Holly
    beating heart surgery Side to side IMA to LAD . (2008, November 7). YouTube. Retrieved February 7, 2011, from" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen>

    external image stenting_E.jpg&size=300&size=300&size=300&size=150&size=300

    I thought this was a great visual aide for how a stent is placed. Enjoy!
    Orbus Neich. (2010). Retrieved 2010, from
    Jennifer Harris
    This is a link which I found from the American Heart Association website. It relates Heart Failure and the intake of chocolate for citezens in sweeden. This was a credible source and unreliable information was thrown out. The results of this website explain that HF was decreased in women who had chocolate anywhere from 1-3 times per month to 1-2 time per week. It went on to explain that the person who's intake was more than once a day had similar results to those who never had chocolate. This was an interesting piece for me to read simply because we have been told that it is the dark chocolate which is good for you whereas this article and study was based using milk chocolate at a 30% cocoa per serving. Also, the serving sizes used were 30 grams and the United States current serving size for chocolate is 20 grams. Check out the website.
    Becky Meek

    Circulation: Heart Failure is published by the American Heart Association. 7272 Greenville Avenue, Dallas, TX

    DOI: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.110.944025

    Circ Heart Fail
    Elizabeth Mostofsky, Emily B. Levitan, Alicja Wolk and Murray A. Mittleman
    published online August 16, 2010;

    Adding a link with great information on the circulatory system. A review of A and P. :) enjoy. Joe-

    circulatory system

    Heart Attack Risk Assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved February 7, 2011, from

    Below is a link to The Annals of Thoracic Surgery article on carotid-subclavian echocradiography. It is in regard to detection of aortic coarctation in infants. Coarctation of the aorta, or aortic coarctation is a congenital condition of the heart in which the aorta narrows at the site where the ductus arteriosus junctures. The article is advocating echocardiography to meaasure the various aortic outlets in infants, and states the non invasive procedure can determine whether a coarctation exists. Proactive screening for this disorder is necessary, as it presents itself as shock or heart failure when symptoms do actually appear. Surgical repair is necessary if coarctation of the aorta is identified. Although this non invasive procedure is not implemented or inforced by the American Academy of Pediatrics, there are some standard screening tools in place. In particular, newborns receive blood pressures on the right sided extremities prior to discharge after birth. Abnormally different readings can warrant the need for further investigation. Typically, a substantially lower blood pressure will be observed.

    Ali Dodge-Khatami, M. P. (2005, April 25). Carotid-Subclavian Artery Index: New Echocardiographic Index to Detect Coarctation in Neonates and Infants . Retrieved February 5, 2011, from The Annals of Thoracic Surgery:

    Steph" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen>

    @font-face { font-family: "Calibri"; }@font-face { font-family: "Futura-BookOblique"; }@font-face { font-family: "Futura-Book"; }@font-face { font-family: "Cambria-BoldItalic"; }@font-face { font-family: "Cambria-Bold"; }@font-face { font-family: "ZapfDingbats"; }@font-face { font-family: "FuturaLT-Light"; }p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal { margin: 0in 0in 10pt; line-height: 115%; font-size: 11pt; font-family: "Times New Roman"; }a:link, span.MsoHyperlink { color: blue; text-decoration: underline; }a:visited, span.MsoHyperlinkFollowed { color: purple; text-decoration: underline; }p { margin-right: 0in; margin-left: 0in; font-size: 12pt; font-family: "Times New Roman"; }div.Section1 { page: Section1; }


    Cardiac posting by Andrea Pedrosa

    This is a poem I came across that I really enjoyed – sometimes poetry can express thoughts and feelings in a much different way. The poem is written by Richard Waring, a layout artist for the New England Journal of Medicine, who enjoys a new lease on life. His poems have been published in various medical journals. He can be contacted at,

    After Heart Surgery By Richard Waring

    When I am alone again

    I place both hands over my chest, pledge

    allegiance to each leaflet of my bicuspid valve.

    The surgeon parted the Red Sea

    and brought it back together again,

    babying a new archway of oxygen.

    I am grateful for the two hours my heart

    stopped, confident in the beauty of a new beat,

    a rescuing remedy thin as paper.

    The nurses admire and measure the scar

    as I lean back in the bed, eyes open,

    letting the enlivening flow happen.


    AJN, American Journal of Nursing. (2010). Volume 110 - Issue 3 - ppg 50 Retrieved February 11, 2011, from


    This is a video that shows in 3D how a myocardial infarction occurs. The video also gives a really cool 3D animation of artheriosclerosis occurring in the coronary arteries prior to the heart attack. There are also signs and symptoms, risk factors, and recommended treatments for this very serious issue. Please take a look… and forgive the music if you don’t enjoy classical J.
    Marjorie McGowen – Post #2
    [[media type= width="425" height="349"]]

    REFERENCE: Biandari, N. (2009, April 13). YouTube - Myocardial Infarction/ How does a Heart Attack.... explanation and animation . YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Retrieved February 12, 2011, from

    Heart (and Lung) Sounds - Cardiovascular Wiki Submission #2
    Josie Dean
    While at the Doak for my most recent clinical rotation, I heard a most interesting heart sound. Although I am unable definitively reproduce the sound, I did find a great site for us to use to hear heart sounds and lung sounds. Check it out. Hope it helps.

    This is a website in which some patients may learn some more about their Health.

    Heart Health Quizzes. (2011, January 26). Retrieved February 13, 2011, from American Heart Association:
    Becky Meek

    [[media type= width="480" height="390"]]

    This is a song that I remember hearing in High School. It always stuck with me so I thought I would share. I liked the diagrams that went with the songs as well. Amber

    timaeus22222. (2007, August 28). Pump Your Blood Song and Lyrics. Retrieved Febuary 13, 2011, from you tube:
Citation:(Random Facts, 2010)

Random Facts. (2010, January 28). 36 Interesting facts about...The Human Heart. Retrieved Febuary 11, 2011, From Random Facts: thought this would be a simple review of how the heart works. Sometimes simple works best for me. Hope it helps[1]
<iframe title="YouTube video player" width="480" height="390" src="" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>

I have posted a slideshow with some good information, maybe good for studying(?), about the heart and related conditions. The website reference is listed below.



Cardiology. (n.d.). //Upload & Share PowerPoint presentations and documents//. Retrieved February 5, 2011, from

Make 2 submissions to this WIki Page
1. Due by Sunday 2400 February 6, 2010
2. Due by Sunday 2400 February 13, 2010

**Photo Posted by Brian Kofke**
The reason why I am posting the below picture is because this 23 year old man, //Swaroup Anand, from Bangalore, India// is undergoing open heart surgery while he is wide awake! He received an epidural in his neck in order to sustain feeling. Could you imagine going through such a substantial medical procedure while being mentally alert to what’s going on?


Dr. Wes. (2010, January 17). //Wide Awake Open Heart Surgery//. Retrieved February 1, 2011 from,

I thought this surgery was very fascinating. The recovery time was very short, just three months. This was just awesome. Rhonda
Olympia, F., Dr. (2009, November 1). YouTube - Surgery Videos . //YouTube - Broadcast Yourself.// . Retrieved January 13, 2011, from

Website evaluation for Kawasaki Disease Foundation, Caring for Precious Hearts at

I found this website to be invaluable to me when this serious disease affected my family. It became a valuable resource and one I will be grateful for, for the rest of my life.

Kawasaki disease, also known as Kawasaki syndrome, is a serious disease characterized by inflammation of blood vessels throughout the body. It primarily affects young children and infants, and is more common in males.

The reason this disease is classified under cardiovascular system is that this disease is THE leading cause of acquired heart disease in children.

When my son was just three and a half, he developed a fever and reddish eyes and just wasn’t feeling well at all, so of course I took him to his pediatrician who promptly diagnosed an ear infection and gave me antibiotics and told me to give him acetaminophen for the fever. Two days later there was still no improvement, in fact he still had a fever and seemed to be feeling worse and his eyes were even redder. Back we went to the pediatrician. This time he got a shot of prednisone, oral prednisone to take home, and eye drops. Again, two days later my son still was not well and was having trouble walking. No pediatrician this time! I loaded him and a few toys into the car and made the trek to the emergency department at St. Mary’s. After an extensive interview and evaluation, my son was finally diagnosed correctly - Kawasaki Disease. He was immediately started on immunoglobulin therapy. A pediatric cardiologist did an echocardiogram that same evening that showed widespread inflammation of his heart vessels. Within 24 hrs of starting the medications, my son was walking around and laughing once again. It was a miracle. We were released a few days later. My son took high doses of aspirin and was scheduled for a repeat echocardiogram in eight weeks. That was a critical turning point because by then the inflammation in his heart should have resolved - or we might detect permanent damage to his coronary arteries. He needs echocardiograms every year now for several years and needs to be followed closely by a cardiologist during his lifetime.

There was so much chaos and stress during this critical stage of his illness that it was impossible to absorb most of what I was told. I resorted to the internet and discovered the Kawasaki disease foundation. It is such an amazing website as it is always current, provides links to the most recent research, provides phone numbers of other parents who have had children with KD as a support system, has an area to post personal stories and pictures, has videos to watch and even a discussion forum. Between the stress and the conflicting information I received, I felt more comfortable doing some research on my own and discovered this website, among many others.

This is an organization and website that I feel was invaluable to me not only because it provided the latest information but also because of its personal connection to those of us who have had to deal with this potentially devastating disease.
Andrea Pedrosa

__**Trentin Moya - Journal Article w/critique**__

Mohiuddin et al. (2007) conducted a study comparing standard care to an intensive smoking cessation intervention for high-risk smokers with cardiovascular disease. The link between smoking and poor outcomes was first discussed. Patients that have had a myocardial infarction (MI) put themselves at a 50% higher risk of having future coronary occurrences than non-smokers (Mohiuddin et al., 2007). Patients that quit smoking for three years after a MI share the same risk for another event as nonsmokers (Mohiuddin et al., 2007).

The authors' study divided 209 participants into two groups. One group of 109 received the intensive intervention, and the other 100 participants were assigned to receive usual care. Intensive intervention included counseling sessions and pharmaco-therapy for the first three months after discharge. Participants were followed-up at 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months. This study demonstrated that those receiving the intensive intervention were more likely to quit smoking and were less likely to be re-hospitalized or die (Mohiuddin et al., 2007).

This study as well as others indicate the best time to begin an intervention is during hospitalization. The authors' conclude with the recommendations made by the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association which is to provide counseling, pharmacologic therapy, and a smoking cessation program to smokers that are recovering from an acute coronary event. These authors' found that a 3 month intervention should be used (Mohiuddin et al., 2007). As future nurses, one of our duties will be to provide education, information, and resources for smoking cessation to our patients.
Mohiuddin, S. M., Mooss, A. N., Hunter, C. B., Grollmes, T. L., Cloutier, D. A., & Hilleman, D. E. (2007). Intensive smoking cessation intervention reduces mortality in high-risk smokers with cardiovascular disease. //Chest, 131//(2), 446-452. doi: 10.1378/chest.06-1587. Retrieved from

This would be considered a credible source. The authors' credentials and contact information are provided on the first page of the article. This is a peer-reviewed article of a randomized study. The study was conducted at the Creighton University Cardiac Center in Omaha, NE (which is also the contact address of one of the authors). This article was found doing a GoogleScholar search. This article was accessed from the journal //Chest// which is associated with the American College of Chest Physicians--a reputable organization with a .org URL. The article chosen was written within the last four years which is considered current enough to be used.

Trentin Moya

__**Trentin Moya - American Heart Association Website Evaluation**__

American Heart Association. (n.d.). //Homepage//. Retrieved from

A well-known, reputable organization that is a valuable resource on learning more about anything relating to the heart is the American Heart Association (AHA). February is American Heart Month and the AHA website encourages everyone to go "red" (AHA, n.d.c). The website provides information on ways to improve one's health coving the topics like nutrition, physical activity, weight and stress management, smoking cessation, and raising healthier kids (AHA, n.d.b). Information can also be obtained on various heart conditions such as arrhythmias, heart attacks, heart failure, and congenital heart defects (AHA, n.d.a). This site has information for healthcare professionals, caregivers, and teachers wanting to reach students to affect a healthier lifestyle (AHA, n.d.c). A news release I found very interesting stated that due to an aging population, the cost to treat heart disease in the U.S. will triple by 2030 resulting in a $545 billion increase (AHA, 2011). Though most of the information is not dated, I believe this .org site can still be trusted and considered credible. Physicians regularly refer patients to the AHA for suggestions on proper diets and other things. The AHA is noted for its up-to-date endeavors to conquer the #1 killer in America--heart disease (AHA, n.d.c)

American Heart Association. (n.d.a). //Conditions//. Retrieved from
American Heart Association. (n.d.b). //Getting healthy.// Retrieved from
American Heart Association. (n.d.c). //Homepage//. Retrieved from
American Heart Association. (2011, January 24). //Cost to treat heart disease in the United States will triple by 2030//. Retrieved from

Trentin Moya
This is a link to the American Heart Association, as well; however, it is a heart attack risk assessment. If you follow the page link it takes you to another link that calculates your risk of having a heart attack or dying from coronary artery disease over the next ten years After the assessment you learn small improvements you can make to decrease your risk of heart attack. Then you "learn if your pattern of risk factors puts you in a high risk category called metabolic syndrome." Finally, you are able to make a plan to reduce your risk.
Sasha Huber
Reference: Heart Attack Risk Assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved February 7, 2011, from